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- home range, rangeThe actual area occupied was probably greater than that indicated in Fig. 1 .I believe the actual areas utilized by some lions extend beyond that indicated .The winter range was on lower Big Creek and downstream on the Middle Fork. Its extent is not known. Her distinctive track, noted during previous years, revealed that she had been in the area since the study began. .Females No 10,11, and 12 reside in the same range as male No 1 .I do believe, however, that territories relative to each over are properly depicted by the capture data .All females studied appeared to change the extent of their ranges in different winter seasons. The changes were correlated with females reproductive status .When alone, a female does not need to utilize a large area, but when accompanied by kittens, the demands of the family for food dictate that she utilize a larger hunting area .Female No 4, accompanied by the three approximately 7 to 8 month-old kittens, confined herself to the eastern portion of the range. .In 1998, still accompanied by the three kittens (now 18 to 22 months old), she utilized only about one-third of the previous years range. .Thus a larger area is required a female reproductive status, and the age and number of her offspring dictate the extent of her seasonal range. The range area is limited by the ability of young to travel great distances .Individual ranges were determined by plotting outlying points of observations .Each boulder-field supported one to three pair(s), which appeared to occupy broadly overlapping home ranges, rather than strictly defended territories. .
Русско-английский словарь по этологии (поведению животных) . Е.Н. Панов . 2013.